“our creative diversity”
Manzanares urbanization (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Devi and Arul, two street children.…
“our creative diversity”
Manzanares urbanization (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Devi and Arul, two street children.…
English: Inside of the Great Enclosure which is part of the Great Zimbabwe ruins. (Photo credit:…
versatile and disciplined artist-Afewerk!!!
“Coronation of Emperor Haile Selassie I” by Maître Afewerk Tekle, 1960 (Photo credit: A.Davey)
has mastered not only numerous media but has also shown ability to select the style most appropriate to his theme. He has not made a dogma of realism, symbolism, or abstract art, or of any other “ism” for that matter, but has used all of these approaches with imagination
when Africans were fighting for their independence and working for the unity of the continent Afewerk contributed in his works.
His paintings included titles such as “Backbones of African Civilization” “African Movement”, “African Atmosphere” and “African Unity”, and for Expo 67 in Montreal, Canada, “Africa’s Heritage” which in now in the permanent collection of the National Museum of Ethiopia.
He was awarded the highest order of “Hero of Peace and Friendship”, and was recognized as the most significant and serious twentieth century artist from the African
the out side world to study art
Wenceslas Hollar – Say and Sele (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
•The Modernization of Ethiopian Art is…
•The Modernization of Ethiopian Art is not totally with the influence of the out side world but it was a kind of integrated. It is the gradual integration of the ancient teaching methods with that of the newly introduced teachings of the out side world (with students sent to the out side world to study art).
•An art education had existed in the nation for several centuries; the church school system prepared scholars, known as Arat-Ayna (Four-Eyed Ones) who were also artists. Considered as scholars and as masters of the arts of traditional instruction and scholarship.
The concept of modernizing Ethiopian art education was born as part of the overall modernizing of Ethiopia, which began during the second part of the 19th century. This was a period that saw the beginnings of unification, military reform, the birth of fairly well developed literary Amharic, and the establishment of schools
we set the clock of the modernization of art education in 1887. This was when the church trained artists; self-taught artists from all around the nation were lured to Entoto
Atse Menelik decided to send Afewerk Gebre Yesus to study art in Europe
In less than a quarter of a century, the art modernization movement shifted from its center in Entoto to Addis Ababa in part and to its primary center in Arat Kilo.
In the 1940s, the modern art movement began to bloom with the works of Ethiopian artists like, first with Abebe Wolde Giorgis, Agegnehu Engeda a Zerihun Dominique, and then.
In the 1960s a new trend in art occupied the minds of Ethiopian artist. Like Ale Felege Selam, Skunder Bogossian, Gebrekirstos desta, Maitre Artist Afework Tekele and others lead the trend and introduced new modern forms of visual creativity into Ethiopian art.
Ethiopian art in the mid 1980s reflected the composition of Ethiopian life more than a decade into the 1974 revolution: what is modern in it derived for better or worse from the ideas and inventions of both eastern and western Europe. What is Ethiopian in it adhered to a traditional be designed by political and economic realities.
After the revolution of 1974, international socialist realism of officially displaced the remnants of modernism that had begun to influence the painting of student at the fine arts school in A.A in the 1960s
paintings of Skunder Boghossian are deeply expressive in a spiritual way where art is
more than a language spoken.
Skunder has inspired and left a powerful impact on a generation of students that were in AASFA.
To him, tuning traditional Ethiopian art to the universal reality was inescapable.
The style, surrealism some called it; abstract expressionism others.
architecture as a form of art
The traditional associations called afocha are neighborhood communities that run the
daily life of Harar citizens, particularly in regard to the rites of
passage such as weddings and funerals. Each married adult is expected to belong to an afocha, that he joins because of physical proximity and that he adopts through a hereditary transmission process. In this way
certain individuals represent their families for more than six generations in the same afocha,
which goes to explain today how one might live in a neighborhood other than that where the
association is to be found. The association can include up to a hundred members of the same
sex—as there are afochas for men and afochas for women.
An afocha is made up of nine officials—a president, a treasurer, a secretary, a
coordinator responsible for funereal ceremonies, someone responsible for noting those late
and those absent, another in charge of telephoning members of the group to inform them of a
death, a vice president, a vice treasurer, a vice secretary. Each member is required to pay a
contribution to the association and, when he is absent or late in attending a reunion, he can be
asked to pay a fine.
When there is a wedding or funeral, each member participates in the ceremony in one
way or another—one is responsible for digging the grave, another to carry the dead, etc.
When there’s a death, the afocha attributes a sum of money to the family of the deceased, a
sum that can vary according to the association in question. The afocha thus is a traditional
system that maintains social cohesion among Harari citizens through solidarity and respect for
the rules of life in society and within the religion.
Harar is one of the oldest Islamic cities in Africa, and considered as the fourth holiest city in Islam, based on the fact of King Negus of Abyssinia welcomed and protected the followers of Prophet Mohamed during their migration to Abyssinia. This has made a strong impact in the history and culture of Harar for centuries to come. Indeed, the way the city planned and developed, and the styles of its mosques, shrines and traditional dwellings indicate that Harar has a special traditional Islamic heritage and way of life, which is still preserved and practiced. The structure of the city with its central heart (Jugol) and commercial and religious buildings reflect the traditional Islamic architecture of the city. It is a cultural product and a distinctive way to show demographic changes although people of Harar stick to their religious identity till today.
Harar is also one of the largest historical cities in Africa, dating back to the tenth century AD, when forty four Muslims arrived Harar calling for Islam. One of these men was Sheikh Abadir, who was considered the founder of the city, which was established to be a major center of trade. The city was an important scientific and commercial center in North Africa, and scientists and students used to come from all over the world and East Africa. Some sources also suggest that the establishment of historic Harar goes back to the seventh century AD, when Arab groups have migrated from Hadhramaut, Yemen
Harar features an unprecedented pattern of architecture reflecting the impact of Islamic culture and African traditions, which together give the city a distinct character. This has helped it to withstand the forces of change over time. However, the city’s ability to keep conservatively has come under doubt because of the winds of rampant globalization, and like other historic cities, Harar will lose its identity unless it maintained. As previously noted, the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) has reported several changes that threaten the architectural character of the area
The social life in Harar leans on two systems. First, is religious, so-called “Afusha” which are strong social systems CCIA’2008 3
at the level of neighborhoods where nine people from the neighborhood (historic center consisting of five neighborhoods) manage the daily life of residents such as way rights, marriages and funerals, etc. Each individual financially contributes through a social system adds to social solidarity among the population through cooperation and respect for the traditions of society life and religion. The second system is regulatory or administrative called “Kabeil”, which, as a word, might have come from the Arabic, word “Kabela”, meaning a tribe. This system divides the city into seven administrative units or Kabeils, each has a team of elected eight members. The task of these members is to maintain order and respect of law and collect rents of state-owned dwellings. The ” Kabeil” is the link between the citizens and the state. Also, it provides health care, building permits, and legal advice. The “Kabeil” operates and cooperates in some matters related to the establishment and maintenance of public spaces
The fortified historic town of Harar is located in the eastern part of the country on a plateau with deep gorges surrounded by deserts and savannah. The walls surrounding this sacred Muslim city were built between the 13th and 16th centuries. Harar Jugol, said to be the fourth holiest city of Islam, numbers 82 mosques, three of which date from the 10th century, and 102 shrines, but the townhouses with their exceptional interior design constitute the most spectacular part of Harar’s cultural heritage. The impact of African and Islamic traditions on the development of the town’s building types and urban layout make for its particular character and uniqueness.
The historic town of Harar Jugol exhibits an important interchange of values of original Islamic culture, expressed in the social and cultural development of the city enclosed within the otherwise Christian region. Such influences have been merged with traditions that relate to the inland of Africa and particularly to southern Ethiopia, giving a particular characteristic form to its architecture and urban plan.
Criterion (iii): Harar Jugol bears exceptional testimony to cultural traditions related to Islamic and African roots. It is considered “the fourth holy city” of Islam, having been founded by a holy missionary from the Arabic Peninsula. Though a trading place and thus a melting pot of various influences, Harar has been in relative isolation in its region, contributing to a cultural specificity, expressed in its characteristic community structure and traditions, which are still alive.
Harar Jugol is an outstanding example of a type of architectural and urban ensemble which illustrates the impact of African and Islamic traditions on the development of specific building types. The building types and the entire urban layout reflect these traditions, which give a particular character and even uniqueness to Harar Jugol.
Harar Jugol with its surrounding landscape is an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, representative of cultural interaction with the environment. The social and spatial structure (afocha) and the language of the people all reflect a particular and even unique relationship that there developed with the environment. The cultural and physical relationships with the territory have survived till today, but they are also vulnerable to irreversible change under the impact of modern globalizing
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