Will they be more alike or more different than they were before?


In any complex human trait, there is a combination of many separate traits that results in capacities or abilities. Thus, musical ability should be thought of not as a single characteristic, but as a complex made up of a number of more elementary abilities, such as sensitivity to small difference in pitch, a rhythm, and ability to remember musical intervals. In a sense of a particular child sensitivity to pitch might come from the mother, a sense of rhythm from the father, the ability to remember tonal intervals from the maternal grandmother, and so on, thus producing a child who has potentiality for music. If anyone were absent, the child could not dependent not go so far in music The possibilities of human adjustment are thus dependent not only upon the Specific characteristics inherited but also upon their combination or pattern.
So far as human heredity is concerned, to a very large degree, the capacities used in adjusting to Iife situation depend on combinations of elements rather than the Specific elements. A boy may have very quickly in reaction time, but if he is also very clumsy, Speed of reaction alone will be of little value to him in baseball. If, however, he is quick in reaction and in motor control, a fine baseball. If, however, he is quick in reaction and good in motor control, a fine baseball player may be in the making.

English: Bachalpsee in the morning, Bernese Alps

English: Bachalpsee in the morning, Bernese Alps (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


Think of the inherited equipment of the human being as composed of literally thousands equipments, which in their combination and pattern make possible a tremendous variety of adjustments.
Not all inherited elements or combinations are present at birth, as many people suppose. Much of the behavior present at birth is in heisted, since only the limited environment of the fetus has been operating. However, may inherit characteristics do not reveal themselves until sometime well after birth, when the environment is opportune or when development has reached an appropriate level. For instance, one of the phenomena most clearly demonstrated to be controlled by heredity is the character and distribution of hair. The color of the beard, its curliness or straightness, as well as its pattern of distribution on the face is controlled by hereditary factors .But the beard of the male does not begin to appear until puberty and is not complete for several years after puberty.
By the shuffling and reshuffling of chromosomes and genes, nature sees to it that each person born is a unique combination of the traits and characteristics that have come down to him through his ancestral lines .Each person both resembles and differs from each of his parents and each of his grandparents, in important and minor aspect .His brothers and sisters, in turn, are like him in some respects and different from him in others.
This unique person moves into an environment which provides him with an opportunity for exhibiting and developing his qualities. The manner in which the culture or environment operates to provide similar experiences and contents for him has been stressed in earlier chapters .Here we will stress another side of the picture – we will point out in addition that first, the environment selects individuals and thus increases rather than decreases uniqueness; and, second that the individual selects from the environment in accordance with his own make –up and thus increases rather than decreases uniqueness.
The first point is frequently misunderstood. Suppose one hundred boys are given careful instruction in running over a period of three months and have the same amounts of practice .Will they be more alike or more different than they were before? The answer is not a categorical <> or a categorical ‘’different “but ‘’both’’.




Through this journey, you will find that the western ancient buildings have a remarkable advantage. That is firmness and permanence. Some buildings have been standing for thousands of years.
But, generally, Chinese ancient architecturecannot be preserved…

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sense of identity’

Behavior Body New Animated Poses

Behavior Body New Animated Poses (Photo credit: Giela Delpaso)



07_identity_19 (Photo credit: THE LIGHT SURGEONS)


Places not visited since childhood can be reconstructed in the mind of someone through the triggering of memories of activity in a group discussion. A sense of identity attached to a space is thus sensitive to individual differences in behavior, experience and attitude.


Particular spaces will not have the same identity for everyone. Relph stated that chain restaurants like McDonalds are‘placeless’.64 However, Relph’s ‘nonplace’ might be someone else’s ‘place’. Six smith was highly critical: “Since no criteria of placelessness are given, one 7 Genereu et al (1983) refer to this last factor as the ‘behavioral component in the meaning of places.’


English: McDonalds' sign in Harlem.

English: McDonalds’ sign in Harlem. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


They carried out experiments rating photographs of 20 settings for appropriateness of certain behaviors, ratings of occurrence and free lists of reasons to go that place and activities associated with it.


They found that clearly distinguish places based on related behavior, and that this in turn is related to their global conception of places. So, if a beautiful beach is considered a good place for making love, it will be imbued with a more appealing, romantic meaning. Some behaviors, like walking, are considered normal in most places, whereas some, like watching TV, are clearly more place-specific. All other things being equal, a person will generally prefer to be in a place with many behavioral associations (such as a beach) rather than one with a few (such as a
swimming pool)




Constructivism and Gestalt


Piano (Photo credit: me5otron)

Constructivism was initially the architectural equivalent of expressionism in art and a symptom of the new found love affair with expressing the innermost qualities of human psychology. The early constructionist works – putting their obsession with technology aside – were breaking down the boundary between art and life – or more accurately the boundary between art and certain aspects of human physiology and psychology. The physiological aspects – with the ‘skeletons’ and ‘vessels’ of buildings exposed – would ultimately influence the externalised frame and pipework of Piano and Rodger’s Pompidou Centre in Paris.
However, the psychological aspects, in terms of representation and effect were equally important. Gestalt psychology was founded in Germany in the 1910s and its influence extended across Europe, including Russia. Arguing originally against the structuralists (who took the position that phenomena could be pared down to


Psychology (Photo credit: 田村)

certain primitive perceptual elements) the Gestaltists maintained that psychological phenomena could only be understood if considered as organised wholes, or Gestalten